Panchang, the must have handbook of an Astrologer, consists of five perimeters, namely Tithi, Nakshatra, Vaar, Yoga and Karana. It is a term in Hindi language that means combination of five essential perimeters for an Astrologer (Panch+Ang). Tithi is a lunar day. There are 16 tithis namely, Pratipada or Prathama, Dwitiya, Tritiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Shashthi, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dashami, Ekadashi, Dwadashi, Trayodashi, Chaturdashi, Purnima and Amavasya. These tithis are divided into five categories namely Nanda, Bhadra, Jaya, Rikta and Purna.
There are 27 Nakshatras, which are a 13 degree and 20 minutes’ equal segments of the zodiac. Names of these Nakshatras are Ashwini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigshira, Aardra, Punarvasu, Pushya, Ashlesha, Magha, Purva Phalguni, Uttar Phalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishakha, Anuradha, Jyeshtha, Moola, PurvaAshadha, UttarAshadha, Shravana, Dhanishtha, Shatabhisha, PurvaBhadrapad, UttarBhadrapad and Revati.
A week consists of seven ‘Vaar’ named after seven visible planets of our zodiac. Names of seven ‘Vaar’ are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday.
Yoga is determined by adding the degrees and minutes of daily motion of the Sun and the Moon. There are 27 Yogas and it spans of 13 degrees and 20 minutes. Names of the Yoga’s are Vishkumbh, Preeti, Aayushmaan, Saubhagya, Shobhana, AtiGanda, Sukarma, Dhriti, Shoola, Ganda, Vriddhi, Dhruva, Vyaghaata, Harshana, Vajra, Siddhi, Vyatipaata, Variyaana, Parigha, Shiva, Siddh, Saadhya, Shubha, Shukla, Brahma, Indra and Vaidhriti.
Half of a tithi is called ‘Karana’ and there are 11 ‘Karana’s altogether. Name of the ‘Karana’s are Bava, Baalava, Kaulava, Taitil, Gara, Vanij, Vishti, Shakuni, Chatushpada, Naag and Kintughna.
There are few Tithis and Nakshatras when certain actions are prohibited according to our Shashtra and some of them are considered best for some activities. Combinations of some day and nakshatra also have utmost importance in our religious and mythological beliefs. Marriage, thread ceremony, tonsuring head of male child for the first time, house worming ceremony, foundation stone laying ceremony, beginning of constructing a house, starting business activities, going to abroad or going for some most important work, establishing idol of God at house, buying a vehicle all these activities should be done in an appropriate moment to retrieve maximum benefit out of that and in our Panchang it is considered and mentioned the best feasible as well as suitable Muhurtas for that action.